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[交流] 《武汉大学学报(信息科学版)》:遥感与地质灾害主题双语文章推荐

围绕遥感与地质灾害研究,本期精选发表于《武汉大学学报(信息科学版)》的5篇研究相关双语文章,希望能为相关领域学者提供借鉴与参考,欢迎阅读!


精选文章Selected Articles

01
航空遥感在地质灾害领域的应用:现状与展望
Application of Aerial Remote Sensing in Geological Hazards: Current Situation and Prospects

【摘要】通过地质调查提前了解地质灾害发生的历史和现状,对最终实现潜在灾害的识别和预警具有重要意义。目前,传统人工地面调查手段难以发现并查明茂密植被覆盖或地形高陡等复杂山区的重大地质灾害及隐患,而航空遥感作为一种多功能综合性探测技术,因其独特视场角、不受地面条件限制等优势可高效地获取地质灾害发育分布特征和时空演化规律。首先,概述了地质灾害领域常用的航空遥感平台类型及发展趋势,分析了不同荷载传感器信息处理技术优势及主要解决的地质灾害问题。其次,综述了航空遥感技术在地质灾害基础地形测绘、早期识别、调查评价、中长期监测、应急处置5个应用阶段的重点研究成果,并论述了不同阶段的各类技术方法要求及优劣性。最后,总结航空遥感技术在地质灾害领域应用研究的不足之处,并阐明了未来发展趋势和建议。
【Abstract】Geological disasters affect every continent with a large population, especially in mountainous countries or regions, and its disasters are obviously high, hidden and sudden. Knowing the history and status of disasters in advance through geological surveys is of great significance for the final realization of potential disaster identification and early warning. At present, it is difficult for traditional artificial ground survey methods to discover and identify major geological hazards and hidden dangers in complex mountainous areas such as dense vegetation coverage or high and steep terrain. As a multi-functional comprehensive detection technology, aerial remote sensing can efficiently obtain the development and distribution characteristics of geological hazards and the temporal and spatial evolution laws due to its unique field of view and not being restricted by ground conditions. First, we summarize the types and development trends of aerial remote sensing platforms commonly used in the field of geological disasters, and analyze the advantages of different load sensor information processing technologies and the main problems of geological disasters. Second, the key research achievements of aerial remote sensing technology in five application stages of geological disaster basic terrain mapping, early identification, investigation and evaluation, medium and long-term monitoring, and emergency response are reviewed, and the requirements and advantages and disadvantages of various technical methods at different stages are discussed. The shortcomings of the application of aerial remote sensing technology in the field of geological hazards are summarized, and the future development trends and suggestions are clarified.


02
卫星雷达遥感在滑坡灾害探测和监测中的应用:挑战与对策
Application of Satellite Radar Remote Sensing to Landslide Detection and Monitoring: Challenges and Solutions

【摘要】将卫星雷达遥感应用于滑坡灾害的探测与监测,不仅可以从空间尺度上大范围捕捉到滑坡信号,而且可以从时间尺度上以较长周期追踪滑坡的运动状态。但是,卫星雷达遥感本身的局限性和滑坡所处的复杂地形环境使这一应用面临一些挑战。对卫星雷达遥感技术的4个主要挑战进行了总结与分析,同时给出了相应的解决方案:①通过提高卫星雷达影像的空间、时间分辨率,使用较长波段雷达信号或采用增强型时间序列分析技术,可降低密集植被覆盖对相干性的影响。另外,采用像素点偏移量追踪或距离向分频干涉测量方法,可克服传统干涉测量中大梯度形变引起的相位失相干。②大气延迟对卫星遥感的影响较大,尤其是地处山区的滑坡探测和监测,利用通用型卫星雷达大气改正系统可显著减弱干涉影像的大气信号并进一步简化时间序列分析,提高缓慢运动滑坡的探测和监测质量。③对于中等分辨率的雷达影像而言,利用数字高程模型可提前量化分析雷达几何畸变(如叠掩、阴影等)引发的滑坡探测监测的适用性;而对于高分辨率的雷达影像而言,利用机器学习方法无需外部高分辨率数字高程模型即可精确识别雷达影像的阴影和叠掩区并进行掩膜,从而大幅度提高数据处理效率。④针对高坡度地区残余的地形相位引起的解缠误差,可通过基线线性组合的方法予以减弱。此外,提出了一个基于多源对地观测的滑坡探测/监测系统框架,综合卫星雷达遥感与其他对地观测数据(如地基雷达、激光雷达、全球导航定位系统),搭建了一个自动化滑坡探测与监测系统。该研究旨在阐明卫星雷达遥感的优缺点,进一步深化其在滑坡灾害监测方面的应用和推广,引出未来侧重发展方向的思考与探讨。
【Abstract】Satellite radar observations enable us not only to detect landslides with detailed sliding signals over broad spatial extents but to track landslide dynamics continuously, which has gradually been recognized by the earth observation and landslide communities. However, there are still several challenges in the landslide detection and monitoring with satellite radar observations due to their inherent limitations such as the phase decorrelation caused by heavy vegetation and/or large gradient surface movements, and the geometric distortion introduced by the side-looking orbit. In this paper, from landslide detection and monitoring perspective, the four major challenges of satellite radar technologies are discussed as follows: ① The phase decorrelation caused by heavy vegetation can be weakened by use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery with a long radar wavelength (e.g., S-band or L-band), a short temporal resolution, and/or a high spatial resolution (e.g., 1 m or even higher), and/or advanced interferometric SAR (InSAR) time series. In addition, the phase decorrelation associated with large deformation gradients can be addressed by SAR offset tracking and range split-spectrum interferometry techniques. ② Atmospheric effects represent a big challenge of conventional InSAR for landslide detection and monitoring, especially in mountain areas. The generic atmospheric correction online service (GACOS) which is developed at Newcastle University can be used to reduce atmospheric effects on radar observations and simplify the follow-on time series analysis. ③ The geometric distortions such as shadows and layovers can be pre-analyzed using an external digital elevation model (DEM) for medium-spatial-resolution SAR data; in contrast, for high-resolution SAR data, a machine learning approach can be used to identify water bodies, shadows and layovers without a requirement of a high-spatial-resolution DEM. ④ Residual topographic phase exhibits in areas with high buildings or steep slopes, which could easily lead to phase unwrapping errors. This can be tackled by a baseline linear combination approach. In addition, a framework is proposed to combine satellite radar technologies with other earth observations (e.g., ground-based radar, LiDAR and GNSS) to develop an automated landslide detection and monitoring system. It is expected that this paper will help the earth observation and landslide communities clarify the technical pros and cons of the satellite radar technologies so as to promote them and guide their future development.


03
重大地质灾害隐患早期识别中综合遥感应用的思考与建议
Early Identification of Serious Geological Hazards with Integrated Remote Sensing Technologies: Thoughts and Recommendations

【摘要】2017年以来,以四川茂县新磨村高位垮塌、金沙江白格滑坡为代表的重大地质灾害多次发生,呈现出隐蔽性强、突发性高、破坏力大等特点,难以早期发现。值得注意的是,尽管地质灾害防治工作已在全国大范围开展并受到国家层面的高度重视与支持,但绝大部分灾害仍发生于全国现有地质灾害隐患点分布以外的区域。对这些人迹罕至、人不能至且观测条件苛刻的地区的重大隐患进行有效早期识别,是当前地质灾害防治工作尚需解决的难题和重要任务。在总结合成孔径雷达干涉测量(interferometric synthetic aperture radar,InSAR)技术特点与其应用局限的基础上,从光学遥感、InSAR、激光雷达等综合遥感测量的角度提出了以“形态、形变、形势”(三形)为观测内容、以定性识别灾害隐患位置、定量监测灾害体变形幅度、依靠综合遥感动态监测数据提升隐患识别能力的技术思路。对未来工作提出了若干建议与思考,以期服务于重大地质灾害隐患综合判断与早期识别工作。
【Abstract】Since 2017, many serious geological disasters have been reported, including the 2017 mountain collapse at high altitudes in Xinmo Village in Mao County, Sichuan Province, and the 2018 Baige landslide in Jinsha River, China most of which are of great destructive power and hard to detect in advance. It is worth noting that although the geohazard prevention has been carried out extensively across the whole country which is supported by the state, many of these geological disasters occur outside the potential geohazard points estimated in advance. The early identification of these undetectable geohazard points remains a big challenge and a crucial task in current geohazard prevention work. In this paper, the characteristics of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and its inherited limitations are summarized. Based on the integrated remote sensing technologies (including optical, SAR/InSAR and LiDAR), the key observation concept with “morphology, deformation, situation” (three forms) is proposed. Through the integration of the range of remote sensing technologies, the locations of potential geohazards will be identified qualitatively, and their associated movements will be monitored quantitatively. Finally, a series of thoughts and suggestions are provided to guide our future work for the early detection of serious geological hazards.


04
基于天-空-地一体化的重大地质灾害隐患早期识别与监测预警
Integrated Space-Air-Ground Early Detection, Monitoring and Warning System for Potential Catastrophic Geohazards

【摘要】中国地质灾害点多面广,且大多地处高位并被植被覆盖,传统的人工调查排查在一些地区进行地质灾害隐患识别已显得无能为力,这也是近年来绝大多数灾难性地质灾害事件都不在预案点范围内的主要原因。提出通过构建天-空-地一体化的“三查”体系进行重大地质灾害隐患的早期识别,再通过专业监测,在掌握地质灾害动态发展规律和特征的基础上,进行地质灾害的实时预警预报,以此破解“隐患点在哪里”“什么时候可能发生”这一地质灾害防治领域的难题和国家急切需求。“三查”体系首先通过光学遥感和合成孔径雷达干涉测量技术(interferometric synthetic aperture radar,InSAR)实现区域扫面性地质灾害隐患的普查,随后利用机载激光雷达测量技术(light laser detection and ranging, LiDAR)和无人机摄影测量实现高地质灾害风险区段和重大地质灾害隐患的详查,最后采用现场调查、地面与坡体内部监(探)测等手段,实现重大地质灾害隐患的复核确认和排除,即核查。监测预警则是通过InSAR和地面观测手段(如全球导航卫星系统、裂缝计等),在掌握滑坡崩塌的变形规律和阶段以及时间-空间变形特征的基础上,建立分级综合预警体系,并利用地质灾害实时监测预警系统,逐步实现地质灾害监测预警的实用化和业务化运行。
【Abstract】In China, the traditional methodology on an early survey of natural terrain to landslides is challenging as zones most prone to slope failure are usually inaccessible due to high location and dense vegetation. This can lead to the underestimation of potential landslide events to the degree of wrongly identifying unstable areas as stable. This paper provides a solution for these cases by proposing an integrated space-air-ground investigation system that allows for the early detection, real-time prediction, and warning of catastrophic geohazards. Firstly, the high-resolution optical images and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from satellites are employed to obtain a global panorama of a region, highlighting these problematic locations; yet results are detailed enough to provide reliable estimates of deformations at particular points along time spans of days and weeks. As a consequence, it makes the compilation of long displacement time-histories feasible, contributing to the understanding of long-term landslide-driving phenomena in regions where it has been underestimated. This is called the general investigation. Then, detailed assessments can be done through the development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for elaborating high-resolution relief maps and photogrammetric representations based on both the visual images and the light laser detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. The system finally allows for precise tagging of locations that the warrant real-time site monitoring of displacements using global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and crack gauges, validating expecting behavior of these critical, but previously hidden hazardous locations. The overall approach makes it possible to establish a four-level comprehensive early warning system, which meets the urgent needs of the country and promotes a practical and operational application of such a system in the field of geohazard prevention.


05
多模态序列遥感影像的洪涝灾害应急信息快速提取
Rapid Extraction of Flood Disaster Emergency Information with Multi-modal Sequence Remote Sensing Images

【摘要】遥感对地观测技术具有响应快、观测范围大、表达地表信息客观等特点,是监测洪涝灾害的有效手段之一。洪涝灾害发生时常常伴随云雨天气,灾害前后获取的时间序列数据来源多样,利用多模态多时相遥感影像对洪涝灾害进行一体化监测是大势所趋。然而,不同传感器类型的数据处理平台不同、处理流程不一,多源数据协同处理链路长、智能化水平低导致时效性难以满足应急响应的需求。提出了一种多模态序列遥感影像一体化配准与洪涝灾害自动变化监测方法,利用深度特征和语义信息实现灾前光学影像和灾后合成孔径雷达(synthetic aperture radar,SAR)影像的自动、高精度配准,基于先验基础地理信息和时间序列遥感影像实现洪水变化监测和灾损信息提取。所提方法在2020年7月中国安徽洪涝灾害和2021年7月中国河南洪涝灾害监测中得到了有效验证,能够实现小时级的灾害应急信息提取。
【Abstract】Objectives: Flood disasters are often accompanied by cloud and rain. Time series data obtained before and after the disaster come from various sources, how to integrate multi-modal and multi-temporal remote sensing images to monitoring flood is the general trend. Methods: We propose a flood monitoring method using multi-modal sequence remote sensing image integration registration and automatic change detection. The depth features and semantic information can be used to realize automatic and high-precision registration of optical and SAR (synthetic aperture radar) images before and after disasters. Based on geographic information and multi-time series remote sensing images, we realize flood change monitoring and submergence information extraction. Results: The method has been effectively verified by flood in Anhui, China in July 2020 and in Henan, China in July 2021, and also can achieve faster acquisition of post-disaster damage information. Conclusions: This work solves the problem of emergency flood monitoring in the case of rainy weather, and puts forward several suggestions on the application of remote sensing technology to disaster events in our country.

期刊推荐Recommended Journal

《武汉大学学报(信息科学版)》创刊于1957年,是教育部主管、武汉大学主办、国内外公开发行的测绘专业学术期刊。
办刊宗旨:期刊依托中国测绘学科优势,立足国内、面向国际,开放办刊,致力于打造中国优秀的测绘期刊品牌。通过发表具有创新性和重大研究价值的测绘学术成果,展示中国测绘研究的最高水平,促进测绘学术交流,引导测绘研究方向,推动测绘科技进步,服务测绘行业发展。
刊登内容:数字摄影测量、遥感技术与应用、地图学与地理信息系统、卫星大地测量、物理大地测量与地球动力学、测绘工程、图形图像学等学科及相关学科的科研成果。稿件要求具有较高的学术水平或重大应用价值,具有创新性、完整性。

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