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pkusiyuan

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[资源] 超级好剑桥2010年英文原版Principles.of.Planetary.Climate

This book introduces the reader to all the basic physical building blocks of climate needed to understand
the present and past climate of Earth, the climates of Solar System planets, and the climates of the newly
discovered extrasolar planets. These building blocks include thermodynamics, infrared radiative transfer,
scattering, surface heat transfer, and various processes governing the evolution of atmospheric composition.
General phenomena such as Snowball Earth states, habitability zones, and the Runaway Greenhouse are
used to illustrate the interplay of the basic building blocks of physics. The reader will also acquire a quantitative
understanding of such key problems as the Faint Young Sun, the nature of Titan’s cold liquid-methane
hydrological cycle, and the warm, wet Early Mars climate, in addition to phenomena related to anthropogenic
global warming on Earth, Earth’s glacial–interglacial cycles, and their analogs on other planets.
Exploration of simple analytical solutions is used throughout as a means to build the intuition needed to
interpret the behavior of more complex phenomena requiring numerical simulation. Where numerical simulation
is necessary, all necessary algorithms are developed in the text, and implemented in user-modifiable
software modules supplied in the online supplement to the book. Nearly 400 problems are supplied to
help consolidate the reader’s understanding, and to lead the reader towards original research on planetary
climate.
This textbook is invaluable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in atmospheric
science, Earth and planetary science, astrobiology, and physics. It also provides a superb reference text
for researchers in these subjects, and is very suitable for academic researchers trained in physics or chemistry
who wish to rapidly gain enough background to participate in the excitement of the new research
opportunities opening in planetary climate.
RAYMOND T . PIERREHUMBERT is the Louis Block Professor in the Geophysical Sciences at the
University of Chicago, where he has taught and undertaken research on a wide variety of Earth and planetary
climate problems for over 20 years. He shared in the Nobel Peace Prize as a lead author of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report. He co-authored the US National
Research Council report on Abrupt Climate Change, and is currently on the National Research Council
panel on CO2 stabilization targets, as well as being a member of their Board on Atmospheric Science and
Climate. He has been a John Simon Guggenheim Fellow, is a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union,
and was named Chevalier de l’Ordre des Palmes Academiques by the Republic of France. In addition to his
research on planetary climate, he writes regularly for the popular climate science blog RealClimate.org.
1 The Big Questions 1
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 Close to home 1
1.3 Into deepest time: Faint Young Sun and habitability of the Earth 6
1.4 Goldilocks in space: Earth, Mars, and Venus 14
1.5 Other Solar System planets and satellites 19
1.6 Farther afield: extrasolar planets 21
1.7 Digression: about climate proxies 27
1.8 The Proterozoic climate revisited: Snowball Earth 39
1.9 The hothouse/icehouse dichotomy 45
1.10 Pleistocene glacial–interglacial cycles 52
1.11 Holocene climate variation 56
1.12 Back to home: global warming 58
1.13 The fate of the Earth and the lifetime of biospheres 66
1.14 Workbook 68
1.15 For further reading 78
2 Thermodynamics in a nutshell 81
2.1 Overview 81
2.2 A few observations 81
2.3 Dry thermodynamics of an ideal gas 84
2.4 Static stability of inhomogeneous mixtures 93
2.5 The hydrostatic relation 96
2.6 Thermodynamics of phase change 98
2.7 The moist adiabat 103
vii
viii Contents
2.8 Workbook 112
2.9 For further reading 132
3 Elementary models of radiation balance 134
3.1 Overview 134
3.2 Blackbody radiation 135
3.3 Radiation balance of planets 143
3.4 Ice-albedo feedback 153
3.5 Partially absorbing atmospheres 165
3.6 Optically thin atmospheres: the skin temperature 169
3.7 Workbook 174
3.8 For further reading 185
4 Radiative transfer in temperature-stratified atmospheres 187
4.1 Overview 187
4.2 Basic formulation of plane-parallel radiative transfer 188
4.3 The gray gas model 199
4.4 Real gas radiation: basic principles 216
4.5 Real gas OLR for all-troposphere atmospheres 263
4.6 Another look at the runaway greenhouse 281
4.7 Pure radiative equilibrium for real gas atmospheres 289
4.8 Tropopause height for real gas atmospheres 299
4.9 The lesson learned 302
4.10 Workbook 303
4.11 For further reading 313
5 Scattering 316
5.1 Overview 316
5.2 Basic concepts 318
5.3 Scattering by molecules: Rayleigh scattering 330
5.4 Scattering by particles 333
5.5 The two-stream equations with scattering 338
5.6 Some basic solutions 340
5.7 Numerical solution of the two-stream equations 348
5.8 Water and ice clouds 354
5.9 Things that go bump in the night: Infrared scattering
with gaseous absorption 359
5.10 Effects of atmospheric solar absorption 362
5.11 Albedo of snow and ice 374
5.12 Workbook 375
5.13 For further reading 383
6 The surface energy balance 386
6.1 Overview 386
6.2 Radiative exchange 388
6.3 Basic models of turbulent exchange 395
6.4 Similarity theory for the surface layer 402
Contents ix
6.5 Joint effect of the fluxes on surface conditions 409
6.6 Global warming and the surface budget fallacy 413
6.7 Mass balance and melting 415
6.8 Precipitation–temperature relations 417
6.9 Simple models of sea ice in equilibrium 420
6.10 Workbook 425
6.11 For further reading 431
7 Variation of temperature with season and latitude 432
7.1 Overview 432
7.2 A few observations of the Earth 433
7.3 Distribution of incident solar radiation 433
7.4 Thermal inertia 444
7.5 Some elementary orbital mechanics 457
7.6 Effect of long-term variation of orbital parameters 462
7.7 A palette of planetary seasonal cycles 469
7.8 Workbook 481
7.9 For further reading 496
8 Evolution of the atmosphere 497
8.1 Overview 497
8.2 About chemical reactions 499
8.3 Silicate weathering and atmospheric CO2 503
8.4 Partitioning of constituents between atmosphere and ocean 514
8.5 About ultraviolet 522
8.6 A few words about atmospheric chemistry 523
8.7 Escape of an atmosphere to space 534
8.8 Workbook 587
8.9 For further reading 597
9 A peek at dynamics 599
9.1 Overview 599
9.2 Horizontal heat transport 599
9.3 Dynamics of relative humidity 619
9.4 Dynamics of static stability 621
9.5 Afterword: endings and beginnings 622
9.6 Workbook 628
9.7 For further reading 633
Index 635
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