Transmission Electron Microscopy in Micro-Nanoelectronics
Author(s): Alain Claverie
Today, the availability of bright and highly coherent electron sources and sensitive detectors has radically changed the type and quality of the information which can be obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEMs are now present in large numbers not only in academia, but also in industrial research centers and fabs.
This book presents in a simple and practical way the new quantitative techniques based on TEM which have recently been invented or developed to address most of the main challenging issues scientists and process engineers have to face to develop or optimize semiconductor layers and devices. Several of these techniques are based on electron holography; others take advantage of the possibility of focusing intense beams within nanoprobes. Strain measurements and mappings, dopant activation and segregation, interfacial reactions at the nanoscale, defect identification and specimen preparation by FIB are among the topics presented in this book. After a brief presentation of the underlying theory, each technique is illustrated through examples from the lab or fab.
Chapter 1 Active Dopant Profiling in the TEM by Off?Axis Electron Holography (pages 1–36): David Cooper
Chapter 2 Dopant Distribution Quantitative Analysis Using STEM?EELS/EDX Spectroscopy Techniques (pages 37–64): Roland Pantel and Germain Servanton
Chapter 3 Quantitative Strain Measurement in Advanced Devices: A Comparison Between Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction and Nanobeam Diffraction (pages 65–80): Laurent Clement and Dominique Delille
Chapter 4 Dark?Field Electron Holography for Strain Mapping (pages 81–106): Martin Hytch, Florent Houdellier, Nikolay Cherkashin, Shay ReboH, Elsa Javon, Patrick Benzo, Christophe Gatel, Etienne Snoeck and Alain Claverie
Chapter 5 Magnetic Mapping Using Electron Holography (pages 107–134): Etienne Snoeck and Christophe Gatel
Chapter 6 Interdiffusion and Chemical Reaction at Interfaces by TEM/EELS (pages 135–164): Sylvie Schamm?Chardon
Chapter 7 Characterization of Process?Induced Defects (pages 165–198): Nikolay Cherkashin and Alain Claverie
Chapter 8 In Situ Characterization Methods in Transmission Electron Microscopy (pages 199–218): Aurelien Masseboeuf
Chapter 9 Specimen Preparation for Semiconductor Analysis (pages 219–236): David Cooper and Gerard Ben Assayag