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learn1986

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Carbon Fibers: Precursors, Manufacturing,
and Properties
Erik Frank,* Frank Hermanutz,* Michael R. Buchmeiser*
1. Introduction
Carbon fibers are made of anisotropic carbon with at least
92 and up to 100 wt% carbon. Carbon fibers with isotropic
carbon with high electrical conductivity are available, yet
not part of this paper. Carbon fibers have high tensile (HT)
strength up to 7 GPa with very good creep resistance, low
densities (r¼1.75–2.00 g cm3) and high moduli (HM) up
to E900 GPa. They lack resistance to oxidizing agents as
hot air and flames, but they are resistant to all other
chemical species. The good mechanical properties make
carbon fiber attractive for use in composites in the form of
woven textiles as well as of continuous or chopped fibers.
The composite parts can be produced through filament
winding, tape winding, pultrusion, compression molding,
vacuum bagging, liquid molding, and injection molding.
Carbon fiber industry has been growing continuously with
a focus on aerospace, military, construction as well as
medical and sporting goods.[1–4] For the automotive
industry, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymeric composites
allow for a significant reduction in weight, which is a
prerequisite for battery-driven cars.
Global carbon fiber consumption and themajor carbon
fiber manufacturers are summarized in Table 1 and 2
and their estimated capacities are sorted by the main
precursor systems PAN and anisotropic pitches.[5] Beside
the continuous growth of carbon fiber production in
the last years, the large-volume application of carbon
fiber in automotive industry has been impeded by
high fiber costs and the lack of high-speed composite
fabrication techniques. However, current investigations
and future developments might well change the market
to establish carbon fibers as a mass product like other
synthetic fibers or metals.
The most important precursor in the market is PAN,
while pitch is used for most other carbon fiber types. The
formerly used precursor rayon has no commercial importance
today. The processing of carbon fibers from different
precursors requires different methods for realizing high
quality end products. The processing paths are similar,
nonetheless, very different in detail.
Review
Dr. E. Frank, Dr. F. Hermanutz, Prof. M. R. Buchmeiser
Institute of Textile Chemistry and Chemical Fibers (ITCF)
Denkendorf, Ko¨rschtalstr. 26, 73770 Denkendorf, Germany
E-mail: erik.frank@itcf-denkendorf.de;
frank.hermanutz@itcf-denkendorf.de;
michael.buchmeiser@itcf-denkendorf.de
Prof. M. R. Buchmeiser
Lehrstuhl fu¨r Makromolekulare Stoffe und Faserchemie, Institut
fu¨r Polymerchemie, Universita¨t Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55,
70550 Stuttgart, Germany
The properties, structure, and processing of carbon fibers are reviewed. Carbon fibers are
made from several precursors, with PAN being the dominating precursor in the market.
Carbon fibers have high tensile strength, highmodulus (up to the theoretical limit of around
1000 GPa), and low density, depending on the structure
and processing in very limited combinations.
Both the structure and composition of the precursor
affect the properties of the resulting carbon fibers
significantly. Although the essential processes for
carbon fiber production are similar, different precursors
require different processing conditions in order to
achieve improved performance. Future developments
are discussed.

[ Last edited by fanshuqi on 2012-5-16 at 12:52 ]
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