查看: 50  |  回复: 1
【悬赏金币】回答本帖问题,作者p1801321将赠送您 50 个金币

p1801321

木虫 (著名写手)

[求助] 求英译汉,机器翻译的不给金币哦

The defining phase transformation associated with the glassy state is the glass transition. However, this is not a thermodynamic phase transition at all, but rather a kinetic transformation as a liquid is supercooled. The glass transition involves a freezing of the configurational degrees of freedom at the nanoscale level such that the glass is a solid-like material but with liquid-like properties. In recent years, much progress has been made in understanding the fundamental physics of the glass transition.
    The glass transition itself is a function of both the structural relaxation time — an intrinsic property —and an external observation time scale (i.e., the relevant time scale of the experiment). Glass transition can be induced through either of two pathways. The first is by increasing the internal relaxation time of a glass forming liquid. This is what happens in the traditional approach to glass-forming by cooling from a high-temperature melt. As the temperature of the system is lowered, the atoms lose thermal energy, eventually becoming trapped in a particular configuration. The second path to induce glass transition is by shortening the observation time scale. Any liquid, when observed on a short enough time scale, will behave as a solid material, that is, a glass. This method of inducing glass transition is seen, for example, in specific heat spectroscopy experiments where a system is probed on a multitude of disparate time scales.
    The glass transition is fundamentally kinetic in origin, but it has important thermodynamic consequences. While the freezing of the configurational degrees of freedom during the glass transition does not result in any change in volume or energy, the configurational contributions to entropy and second-order thermodynamic properties such as heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient are all lost as the system becomes frozen at the nanoscale level. This has led many scientists to postulate the existence of an “ideal” glass transition that entails a second-order thermodynamic phase transformation. However, the concept of an ideal glass transition has been widely criticized based on both theoretical and experimental considerations.
    While the glass transition involves the imposition of a kinetic constraint, the opposite process — structural relaxation — involves the lifting of this constraint. Because glass is a nonequilibrium material, it is continually relaxing to approach its metastable supercooled liquid state. At low temperatures and short time scales, this relaxation process is effectively frozen. However, at higher temperature or for exponentially longer times,
measurable relaxation of the glassy state can be observed, reactivating the nanoscale transitions that ultimately lead to viscous flow. Relaxation is a spontaneous process and involves an increase in heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and entropy as the configurational degrees of freedom of the system become activated.
回复此楼
已阅   回复此楼   关注TA 给TA发消息 送TA红花 TA的回帖

冬の萤火

金虫 (小有名气)

建议私信有偿翻译
一只想做译员的小透明~
2楼2020-10-17 11:27:13
已阅   回复此楼   关注TA 给TA发消息 送TA红花 TA的回帖
相关版块跳转 我要订阅楼主 p1801321 的主题更新
不应助 确定回帖应助 (注意:应助才可能被奖励,但不允许灌水,必须填写15个字符以上)
最具人气热帖推荐 [查看全部] 作者 回/看 最后发表
[版块工场] 【早起签到贴】2020年10月30日(q q 48626260 进群申请:小木虫——您个人ID) +21 8475 2020-10-30 21/1050 2020-10-30 06:50 by lbh354839743
[外语学习] 英语外教口语陪练 +3 鱼之乐已矣 2020-10-28 5/250 2020-10-30 01:49 by 鱼之乐已矣
[基金申请] 喜中68批博后基金+青基 +4 zimo523 2020-10-29 6/300 2020-10-29 23:40 by 丿Shine_可乐
[基金申请] 68批评审意见大家都看不到吗? +4 念一抹温存 2020-10-29 6/300 2020-10-29 23:38 by xu_hai
[版块工场] 【早起签到贴】2020年10月29日(q q 48626260 进群申请:小木虫——您个人ID) +19 8475 2020-10-29 19/950 2020-10-29 22:07 by pipeline1
[教师之家] 关于博士享受副教授待遇 +13 henrycn 2020-10-23 16/800 2020-10-29 20:51 by gvfj0106
[基金申请] 我想和大家抱团取暖,好伤心啊 +8 lancet0903 2020-10-28 8/400 2020-10-29 20:29 by schumity
[硕博家园] 坐标河南新乡 +10 水工欠一斤 2020-10-27 12/600 2020-10-29 18:58 by 香茗123
[硕博家园] 把师兄一个月合成的产物弄丢了 +32 耶1234 2020-10-27 32/1600 2020-10-29 10:13 by bear2007
[找工作] Offer 选择 5+3 janecorn 2020-10-28 5/250 2020-10-29 06:47 by terminato2
[论文投稿] 审稿人拖着不回复审稿意见,真的应该拉黑! +7 Jiangnanyu1 2020-10-28 10/500 2020-10-28 14:16 by Jiangnanyu1
[基金申请] 第一次申请就挂了,各位给点建议 +8 幻想空间 2020-10-27 10/500 2020-10-28 11:40 by 幻想空间
[论文投稿] 准备在一个sci期刊先后投三篇sci论文?可以吗? 10+6 良人无梦 2020-10-24 14/700 2020-10-28 07:45 by aaa45688123
[版块工场] 【早起签到贴】2020年10月26日(q q 48626260 进群申请:小木虫——您个人ID) +14 8475 2020-10-27 14/700 2020-10-28 05:29 by miaomiao83
[硕博家园] 研三生活的一些心事 +4 茉莉94421 2020-10-26 7/350 2020-10-28 01:17 by kylekyle
[公派出国] CSC咨询 +4 sunqian629 2020-10-26 4/200 2020-10-27 21:57 by YYSYYF
[论文投稿] decision in progress 2周了 20+4 C50 2020-10-26 13/650 2020-10-27 21:44 by 逝水无痕1990
[版块工场] 【早起签到贴】2020年10月24日(q q 48626260 进群申请:小木虫——您个人ID) +17 8475 2020-10-27 17/850 2020-10-27 12:16 by 我是一个梁
[精细化工] 玻璃水 +4 汽车清洗专家 2020-10-26 5/250 2020-10-27 12:07 by 梅心情意
[有机交流] 爬板 +6 李超 2020-10-26 7/350 2020-10-27 10:51 by 小-文文
信息提示
请填处理意见